Underground capabilities

KBB UT’s service capabilities cover all underground aspects of storage systems right up to the initial filling of the finished storage system:

Preliminary studies and consulting

  • Preliminary studies serve to represent construction process from the approval phase to filling to commissioning, including critical components such as time schedule and cost estimate
  • Consulting/due diligence


Profile of a salt domeKBB UT performs all critical geological examinations required for building underground storage facilities, up to and including the final comprehensive study and assessment. We:

  • Explore and assess the subsoil with respect to building a cavern or facility for storage in porous media using seismic, drilling and analytical data
  • Prepare geological models based on exploration data for building a cavern or facility for storage in porous media
  • Plan and assess costs for cavern, exploration or storage drilling operations
  • Provide support for the geological supervision of wells to be drilled (well geology) including analysing core samples with respect to salt composition and stratigraphy
  • Supervise and evaluate borehole measurements during drilling
  • Measure rock density of the overlying rock layers as part of later calculation of the rock mechanics
  • Geological studies

Drilling technology, completion, snubbing

Drilling and completion equipment

  • All services required for planning and implementing drilling and completion projects
  • Feasibility studies
  • Preliminary planning and detailed planning
  • Implementation planning (prepare specifications and work programs)
  • We plan, prepare and supervise:
    • Cavern drilling completion (installation of production pipes, underground equipment and security equipment)
    • Cavern snubbing near the end of gas filling or for flooding decommissioned caverns
  • Production of the final documentation
  • We provide experienced supervisors

Gas tightness testing

Prepare gas tightness tests

  • Planning and designing gas tightness tests
  • On-site support
  • Evaluate tests and submit the results to the authorities
  • Final documentation

Laboratory examinations

Salt samples for laboratory analysis

  • Chemical analysis of salt core samples, fresh water and brine
  • Examine long-term stability of stored hydrocarbons

Brine technology

Salt dissolves to form brine

  • We prepare brine process schemes and simulations
  • We supervise and control brine processes during cavern construction as well as initial gas filling (backup), including use database systems
  • We plan and supervise workovers
  • We monitor and evaluate cavities, prepare historic matches and modify parameters
  • We monitor and document operational data for the brine production process

Rock mechanics

Rock mechanics

  • We provide rock mechanics and thermodynamic consulting services for constructing and operating caverns.
  • We provide engineering solutions for rock mechanical recommendations, e.g. by performing simulation calculations
  • We provide forecasts on convergence and surface settling caused by cavern operation
  • We develop schemes and tools for supporting cavern operations according to expert recommendations

Thermodynamic studies

Thermodynamic design parameters

  • Thermodynamic simulation of gas cavern operation including the brine phase
  • Simulation of different storage media (natural gas, compressed air, hydrogen and CO2) using a proprietary simulation tool, among others
  • Determining cavern operation design characteristics

Hydraulic calculations

  • Calculations of gases and liquids in pipeline systems and during cavern operation

Gas first fill

Preparation of initial gas filling

  • Scheduling all processes, taking the external situation into account
  • Creation of a model showing profiles for pressure, required gas quantity and brine volume produced as well as a gas breakthrough forecast
  • Monitoring all completion and measurement activities
  • Monitoring initial gas filling 24/7
  • Assessment of measurement results and modification of the initial model